Technology, Environment and Society
Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.)
Program: Computer and Electronics
Prepared by: Dr. K.N. Dulal
According to Webster’s dictionary, technology is defined as a description of arts.
General definition of technology
Technology is technical means, which involves the systematic application of organized knowledge, and tools and materials for the extension of human faculties.
Technology is the source of change in society.
• Creative. feasible ideas
• Practical application
• Diffusion through society
Environment is defined as the immediate surroundings which supports life and sustains various human activities. The surroundings comprises of
• Biotic or living things: plants, animals, microorganisms
• Abiotic or non-living things: land, water, air etc.
Society is people living together in communities.
Chapter 1. Brief History of Technology
Beginnings (from beginning to 3000BC)
Universe: Evolution theory: Big bang theory, 10 to 20 billion years ago
Solar system: Sun at the centre and eight planets, age of sun: about 5 billion years
Earth and life: some facts
• Third planet that orbit the sun
• Formed from cloud of dust and gas drifting through space about 4.6 billion years ago.
• First primitive life: algae and bacteria appeared around 3.4 billion years ago.
• Human being
o Separation of human lineage from primates: about 2 million years ago.
o Modern human (homosapiens) appeared in Africa around 100,000 years ago.
o Beginning of human civilization: about 5000 years ago
• Age prior to the beginning of civilized society (up to 3000BC)
• Tools: stone, wood, animal bone, horn
• No use of metal tools
• Potter’s wheel (around 6500BC)