1. General. A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of affected society to copy using only its own resources. Disasters occur rapidly, instantaneously and indiscriminately. These extreme events either natural or man induced exceed the tolerable magnitude within or beyond certain time limits, make adjustment difficult, result in catastrophic losses of property and income and life is paralyzed. These events which occur aggravate natural environmental processes to cause disasters to human society such as sudden tectonic movements leading to earthquake and volcanic eruptions, continued dry conditions leading to prolonged droughts, floods, atmospheric disturbances, collision of celestial bodies, etc. Disasters have always co-existed with civilizations. With technological advancement, development initiatives resulted in the creation of a lot of infrastructure and permanent assets. Gradually material development detached man from nature on one hand, and increased vulnerability of the human population, on the other. The progressive increase in loss of life, property and deleterious effect on environment due to disasters moved the international community to look at disaster management in a new perspective, which transcends international barriers, anticipates possible threats and enables tackling of disasters from the pre-stage.
2. Disaster Management. A planned approach for prevention of disaster, preparedness and response to disaster and recovery following disaster
a. Types of Disaster. There are two types of disaster ie, human made and natural.
(1) Human-made disasters. Disasters or emergency situations where the principal, direct cause(s) are identifiable human actions, deliberate or otherwise This includes:
(a) Terrorist activity.